A graduated glass tube with a small aperture and stopcock for delivering measured quantities of liquid or for measuring the liquid or gas received or discharged.

The small airways of the lung extending from the bronchi to the alveoli.

BAL; a flexible catheter is placed in the suspect area of the lung. Saline is then released into the area and drawn back through the catheter to be used as a test sample to aid in diagnosing infection/pneumonia; may be performed by a camera (requires equipment, pulmonologist and technician) or blind (small, mini catheter) by a trained respiratory therapist or nurse.

Protective reflex of the tracheo-bronchial tree that restricts entry of potentially damaging substances into the deeper and more vulnerable parts of the respiratory system. Subepithelial irritant receptors are stimulated by inhaled noxious gases, particulate matter, allergens, or pathogens. The motor response resulting from the stimulation results in rapid bronchospasm, glandular secretion, and histamine release. This can also occur during bronchoscopic procedures. SYN: irritant reflex.

Chronic pulmonary insufficiency arising from long term artificial ventilation.

Bronchoscopy is a diagnostic procedure in which a tube with a tiny camera on the end is inserted through the nose or mouth into the lungs. The procedure provides a view of the airways of the lung and allows doctors to collect lung secretions or tissue specimens (biopsy).

A continuous and severe degree of bronchoconstriction by muscular spasm.

Bloodstream Infection

Gurgling sounds heard as air passing through moist secretions in the respiratory tract.

Inside the cheek or mouth, or the gum beside the cheek.